how exercise protects against consequences of ageing - راز آثار ضد سالمندی ورزش

Monash University scientists have discovered an enzyme that is key to why exercise improves our health. Importantly this discovery has opened up the possibility of drugs to promote this enzyme’s activity, protecting against the consequences of ageing on metabolic health, including type 2 diabetes.

The proportion of people worldwide over 60 years old will double in the next three decades and by 2031, more than six million Australians will be over 65 years old. The incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with age so this ageing population will also result in an increased incidence of the disease globally.

One of the main reasons for the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes with age is the development of insulin resistance or an inability for the body to respond to insulin, and this is often caused by reduced physical activity as we age.

In a paper published in the journal Science Advances, the research team show how an enzyme called NOX-4 is essential for exercise-induced ROS and the adaptive responses that drive metabolic health.

Release date: 16 December 2021
Source: Monash University

When older couples are close together, their heart rates synchronize - هماهنگی ضربان قلب زوج های سالمند در جوارهم

As couples grow old together, their interdependence heightens. Often, they become each other’s primary source of physical and emotional support. Long-term marriages have a profound impact on health and well-being, but benefits depend on relationship quality.

A new study from the University of Illinois examines the dynamics of long-term relationships through spatial proximity. The researchers find that when partners are close to each other, their heart rates synchronize in complex patterns of interaction.

But just being close to another person isn’t always beneficial; it depends on the nature of the interaction, Ogolsky points out. Closeness in the context of a conflict is very different from closeness in the context of a loving interaction. Similarly, changes in heart rate can be positive or negative.

Participants wore a Fitbit measuring their heart rate. They also wore a small proximity-sensing device. The researchers installed sensors in the home that allowed them to monitor the devices and observe in real time how physically close the spouses were to each other. They could then correlate all three measures – each partner’s heart rate and the couple’s proximity – in real time.

The researchers called the couples in the morning to remind them to put on the Fitbit and tracking device, and again in the evening for a survey about their health and well-being as well as their relationship dynamics throughout the day.

The paper, “Spatial proximity as a behavioral marker of relationship dynamics in older adult couples,” is published in the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.

Release date: 16 November 2021
Source: University of Illinois

Does physical activity impact risk of knee osteoarthritis - آیا فعالیت شدید آرتروز ایجاد می کند

In an analysis published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, investigators did not find any link between the amount and duration of physical activity with individuals’ risk of developing knee osteoarthritis.

The analysis included six global community-based studies including a total of 5,065 participants with and without knee osteoarthritis who were followed for five to 12 years.

“Knowing that the amount of physical activity and time spent doing it is not associated with the development of knee osteoarthritis is important evidence for both clinicians and the public who may need to consider this when prescribing physical activity for health,” said co–lead author Thomas Perry, BSc, PhD, of the University of Oxford, in the UK.

Next, it will be important to understand the role of injury and specific types of activity within this association, noted co–lead author Lucy S. Gates, PhD, of the University of Southampton, and co–senior author Maria Sanchez-Santos, of the University of Oxford.

Release date: 03 November 2021
Source: Wiley

Happiness in Early Adulthood May Protect Against Dementia - شادی و توانمندی شناختی

While research has shown that poor cardiovascular health can damage blood flow to the brain increasing the risk for dementia, a new study led by UC San Francisco indicates that poor mental health may also take its toll on cognition.

The research adds to a body of evidence that links depression with dementia, but while most studies have pointed to its association in later life, the UCSF study shows that depression in early adulthood may lead to lower cognition 10 years later and to cognitive decline in old age.

The study publishes in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

Release date: 28 September 2021
Source: University of California – San Francisco

Optimal Time for Motor Recovery After Stroke in Humans - بهترین زمان توانبخشی بیماران سکته مغزی

For the first time, stroke study reveals optimal timing and intensity for arm and hand rehabilitation. Rehabilitation is most effective 60 to 90 days after a stroke.

A phase II randomized clinical trial found that the optimal period for intensive rehabilitation of arm and hand use after a stroke should begin 60 to 90 days after the event. The study, conducted by Georgetown University and MedStar National Rehabilitation Network (NRH) researchers, was published September 20, 2021, in PNAS (Critical Period After Stroke Study (CPASS): A Phase II Clinical Trial Testing an Optimal Time for Motor Recovery After Stroke in Humans).

The same intensive rehabilitation at less than 30 days after a stroke provided some benefit, but rehabilitation at six months or more after a stroke showed no significant benefit compared to those receiving standard care.

Approximately 750,000 new strokes occur each year in the United States. Nearly two-thirds of people who have a stroke do not recover complete function in their hands and arms, an impairment that can severely limit everyday activities.

Release date: 20 September 2021
Source: Georgetown University Medical Center

Nasal cartilage relieves osteoarthritis in the knee - درمان جدید و جالب آرتروز

Cartilage cells from the nasal septum can not only help repair cartilage injuries in the knee – according to researchers from the University of Basel and the University Hospital Basel, they can also withstand the chronic inflammatory tissue environment in osteoarthritis and even counteract the inflammation.

A research team at the Department of Biomedicine of the University of Basel and the University Hospital of Basel is cultivating cartilage tissue from cells of the nasal septum to repair articular cartilage in the knee. The team led by Professor Ivan Martin and Professor Andrea Barbero has already succeeded in doing this in initial clinical studies on isolated cartilage damage, and they have now reported that the approach could also be suitable for degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. Their findings have been published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Osteoarthritis is associated with cartilage degradation, which can cause severe pain and reduce mobility. The therapeutic approach up to now aims at palliative treatment of the inflammation and pain until a knee joint replacement by a prosthetic implant becomes unavoidable. Joint prostheses, however, have a limited durability, which makes the treatment problematic, especially in younger patients.

Release date: 01 September 2021
Source: University of Basel

Having a Good Listener Improves Your Brain Health- شنونده خوبی پیدا کنید

Supportive social interactions in adulthood are important for your ability to stave off cognitive decline despite brain aging or neuropathological changes such as those present in Alzheimer’s disease, a new study finds.

In the study, published in JAMA Netw Open, researchers observed that simply having someone available most or all of the time whom you can count on to listen to you when you need to talk is associated with greater cognitive resilience—a measure of your brain’s ability to function better than would be expected for the amount of physical aging or disease-related changes in the brain, which many neurologists believe can be boosted by engaging in mentally stimulating activities, physical exercise, and positive social interactions.

Release date: 16 August 2021
Source: NYU Langone Health / NYU Grossman School of Medicine

Step closer to nasal spray drug delivery for Parkinsons disease - درمان جدید پارکینسون در راه

Scientists at the University of York have made significant progress in the development of a nasal spray treatment for patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Researchers have developed a new gel that can adhere to tissue inside the nose alongside the drug levodopa, helping deliver treatment directly to the brain.

Levodopa is converted to dopamine in the brain, which makes-up for the deficit of dopamine-producing cells in Parkinson’s patients, and helps treat the symptoms of the disease. Over extended periods of time, however, levodopa becomes less effective, and increased doses are needed. Advanced Science 

Release date: 24 May 2021
Source: University of York

Women with Osteoporosis and Low Bone Density Are at Increased Risk of Hearing Loss - ارتباط سلامت استخوان و گوش

Hearing loss is the third most common chronic health condition in the United States. Previous studies of people with hearing loss have uncovered higher prevalence of osteoporosis — a disease in which the bones become weak and brittle — and low bone density (LBD). But research on whether these conditions may influence risk of hearing loss over time is scarce. It is also unknown whether hearing loss can be avoided by taking bisphosphonates, the primary medication used to prevent fractures in people with reduced bone density. As part of the Conservation of Hearing Study (CHEARS), researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital analyzed data from nearly 144,000 women who were followed for up to 34 years. They found that risk of subsequent moderate or worse hearing loss was up to 40 percent higher in study participants with osteoporosis or LBD. The study, published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, also found that bisphosphonates did not alter risk of hearing loss.

Release date: 24 May 2021
Source: Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Exercise boosts blood flow to the brain - از اثرات مثبت ورزش بر مغز

The results add to growing evidence that exercise programs may help older adults slow the onset of memory loss and dementia. It’s not just your legs and heart that get a workout when you walk briskly; exercise affects your brain as well. A new study by researchers at UT Southwestern shows that when older adults with mild memory loss followed an exercise program for a year, the blood flow to their brains increased. The results were published online today in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

Release date: 23 March 2021
Source: UT Southwestern Medical Center