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Genomic Analysis Reveals Many Animal Species May Be Vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 Infection - حیوانات می توانند ناقل کرونا شوند

The Western lowland gorilla shows a very high risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2 through its ACE2 receptors according to a new genomic study from UC Davis.

Humans are not the only species facing a potential threat from SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, according to a new study from the University of California, Davis.

An international team of scientists used genomic analysis to compare the main cellular receptor for the virus in humans — angiotensin converting enzyme-2, or ACE2 — in 410 different species of vertebrates, including birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals.

Release date: 21 August 2020

Source: University of California – Davis

COVID-19 study confirms low transmission in educational settings - خطر انتقال کرونا در مدارس پایین است
Transmission of COVID-19 in schools is less than other respiratory viruses
New research finds COVID-19 transmission rates in NSW schools and early childcare education and care settings were minimal, particularly between children and from children to adults.

The rate of COVID-19 transmission in New South Wales (NSW) educational settings was extremely limited during the first wave of COVID-19, research findings published today in The Lancet Journal of Child and Adolescent Health have shown.

Researchers from the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (NCIRS) and the University of Sydney released their preliminary findings from this work from January to April 2020.

Release date: 4 August 2020

Source: University of Sydney

Is COVID-19 Transmitted Through Breast Milk - احتمال انتقال ویروس کرونا از طریق شیر مادر بسیار ناچیز است
The infectious virus was not detected in 64 samples of breast milk tested.
As the novel coronavirus continues to spread around the world, so do the concerns of breastfeeding mothers. Although there have been no documented cases to date of an infant contracting COVID-19 as a result of consuming infected breast milk, the critical question of whether there is potential for this form of transmission remains. In a recent study, researchers from University of California San Diego School of Medicine and University of California Los Angeles collaborated to find the answer.

The study, published August 19, 2020 in the online edition of JAMA , examined 64 samples of breast milk collected by the Mommy’s Milk Human Milk Research Biorepository  from 18 women across the United States infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although one sample tested positive for viral RNA, subsequent tests found that the virus was unable to replicate, and thus unable to cause infection in the breastfed infant.

Release date: 19 August 2020

Source: University of California – San Diego

USC scientists identify the order of COVID-19’s symptoms - دانشمندان ترتیب بروز علایم در بیماری کووید19 را شناسایی کردند

Knowing which symptoms appear first will help doctors identify COVID-19 patients sooner and make better treatment decisions.

USC researchers have found what appears to be the likely order in which COVID-19 symptoms first appear: fever, cough and muscle pain, then nausea and/or vomiting, then diarrhea.

Knowing the order of COVID-19’s symptoms may help patients seek care promptly or decide promptly to self-isolate, the scientists say. It also could help doctors rule out other illnesses or plan how to treat patients, according to the study led by doctoral candidate Joseph Larsen and his colleagues with faculty advisers Peter Kuhn and James Hicks at the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience’s Convergent Science Institute in Cancer.

The scientific findings were published in the journal Frontiers in Public Health.

Release date: 13 August 2020

Source: University of Southern California

Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spreads more indoors at low humidity - رطوبت کم هوا در محیط های سرپوشیده باعث افزایش انتشار ویروس کرونا می شود

Leipzig/New Delhi. The airborne transmission of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 via aerosol particles in indoor environment seems to be strongly influenced by relative humidity. This is the conclusion drawn by researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) in Leipzig and the CSIR National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi from the analysis of 10 most relevant international studies on the subject. Therefore, they recommend controlling the indoor air in addition to the usual measures such as social distancing and masks. A relative humidity of 40 to 60 percent could reduce the spread of the viruses and their absorption through the nasal mucous membrane. To contain the COVID-19 pandemic, it is therefore extremely important to implement standards for indoor air humidity in rooms with many people, such as hospitals, open-plan offices or public transport, writes the research team in the scientific journal Aerosol and Air Quality Research.

Release date: 20 August 2020

Source: Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS)

saliva and deep nasal swabs diagnosing COVID-19 - تشخیص کووید 19 تست حلقی تست بزاقی

Self-collected saliva and deep nasal swabs collected by healthcare providers are equally effective for detecting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, according to a new study conducted by ARUP Laboratories and University of Utah (U of U) Health.

The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, represents one of the largest prospective specimen type comparisons to date, said Julio Delgado, MD, MS, ARUP chief medical officer. Other studies, including one from the Yale School of Public Health, have reached similar conclusions but with markedly fewer patients and specimens.

Researchers also found that specimens self-collected from the front of the nose are less effective than deep nasal swabs for virus detection. This finding prompted a subsequent study that has not yet been published in which researchers learned they could improve the sensitivity of anterior nasal swab testing to 98% by combining an anterior nasal swab with a swab collected from the back of the throat.

Release date: 20 August 2020

Source: University of Utah Health

Possible therapeutic treatment for COVID-19 - ویروس شناسان به روش بالقوه ای برای درمان بیماری کووید19 دست یافتند

Pathogenic coronaviruses are a major threat to global public health, as shown by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or SARS-CoV; Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, known as MERS-CoV; and the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 infection.

The study, “3C-like protease inhibitors block coronavirus replication in vitro and improve survival in MERS-CoV-infected mice,” appears in the Aug. 3 issue of the prestigious medical journal Science Translational Medicine. It reveals how small molecule protease inhibitors show potency against human coronaviruses. These coronavirus 3C-like proteases, known as 3CLpro, are strong therapeutic targets because they play vital roles in coronavirus replication.

Release date: 03 August 2020

Source: Kansas State University

Nature study identifies 21 existing drugs that could treat COVID-19 - در حال حاضر 21 دارو وجود دارند که می توانند به درمان کووید19 کمک کنند

Multiple drugs improve the activity of remdesivir, a current standard-of-care treatment for COVID-19.

Nature study authored by a global team of scientists and led by Sumit Chanda, Ph.D., professor at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, has identified 21 existing drugs that stop the replication of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

The scientists analyzed one of the world’s largest collections of known drugs for their ability to block the replication of SARS-CoV-2, and reported 100 molecules with confirmed antiviral activity in laboratory tests. Of these, 21 drugs were determined to be effective at concentrations that could be safely achieved in patients. Notably, four of these compounds were found to work synergistically with remdesivir, a current standard-of-care treatment for COVID-19.

Release date: 24 July 2020

Source: Sanford Burnham Prebys

How COVID-19 Causes Loss of Smell - علت کاهش بویایی در جریان بیماری کرونا مشخص شد؟

This article is part of Harvard Medical School’s continuing coverage of medicine, biomedical research, medical education and policy related to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the disease COVID-19.

Temporary loss of smell, or anosmia, is the main neurological symptom and one of the earliest and most commonly reported indicators of COVID-19. Studies suggest it better predicts the disease than other well-known symptoms such as fever and cough, but the underlying mechanisms for loss of smell in patients with COVID-19 have been unclear.

Now, an international team of researchers led by neuroscientists at Harvard Medical School has identified the olfactory cell types in the upper nasal cavity most vulnerable to infection by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

Surprisingly, sensory neurons that detect and transmit the sense of smell to the brain are not among the vulnerable cell types.

Release date: 24 July 2020

Source: Harvard Medical School

SARS-CoV-2 viral load peaks in the early stages of disease - بر خلاف انتظار بیشترین بار ویروس کرونا در مراحل ابتدایی و کم علامت ابتلا به بیماری است

Less symptomatic patients have a higher viral load when diagnosed and may carry a higher virus shedding risk potential, possibly representing an important overlooked population for infection containment, report scientists in The American Journal of Pathology.

In a retrospective study, investigators from New York University Langone Health found that the quantity of SARS-CoV-2 (viral load) collected from patients in the emergency department is significantly higher in patients with fewer or milder symptoms who did not require hospitalization—the opposite of what might be expected. Reporting in The American Journal of Pathology, published by Elsevier, they also found that a patient’s history of cancer and cardiovascular disease is associated with higher viral loads even after adjusting for age.

The study was designed to determine possible associations between the viral load measured in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 and their clinical parameters including severity of symptoms, hospital admission vs direct discharge, length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, length of need for oxygen support, and overall survival.

Release date: 14 July 2020

Source: Elsevier