COVID19 Nasal Vaccine Candidate Effective At Preventing Disease Transmission - واکسن تنفسی کرونا


Breathe in, breathe out. That’s how easy it is for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to enter your nose. And though remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against SARS-CoV- 2, such as the readily available Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines, nothing yet – like a nasal vaccine – has been approved to provide mucosal immunity in the nose, the first barrier against the virus before it travels down to the lungs. But now, we’re one step closer.

Navin Varadarajan, M.D. Anderson Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the Cullen College of Engineering, and his colleagues are reporting in iScience the development of an intranasal subunit vaccine that provides durable local immunity against inhaled pathogens.

Release date: 15 September 2021
Source: University of Houston

Physical distance may not be enough to prevent viral aerosol exposure indoors- فقط فاصله گذاری کافی نیست

Eighteen months ago, stickers began to dot the floors of most shops, spaced about six feet apart, indicating the physical distance required to avoid the COVID-19 virus an infected person may shed when breathing or speaking. But is the distance enough to help avoid infectious aerosols?

Not indoors, say researchers in the Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering. The team found that indoor distances of two meters — about six and a half feet — may not be enough to sufficiently prevent transmission of airborne aerosols. Their results were made available online print edition of Sustainable Cities and Society.

The researchers examined three factors: the amount and rate of air ventilated through a space, the indoor airflow pattern associated with different ventilation strategies and the aerosol emission mode of breathing versus talking. They also compared transport of tracer gas, typically employed to test leaks in air-tight systems, and human respiratory aerosols ranging in size from one to 10 micrometers. Aerosols in this range can carry SARS-CoV-2.

Release date: 16 September 2021
Source: Penn State

Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Specific IgA in the Human Milk of COVID-19 Vaccinated Lactating Health Care Workers - شیر مادر و ایمنی کرونایی

SARS-CoV-2 IgA is secreted in human breast milk after vaccination. These suggest the potential protection to nursing infants and may show influence in vaccination strategies.

In 2019, a deadly virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged. In December 2020, two mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines were approved for use in the United States, which provide immunity to those receiving the vaccine. Maternally derived antibodies are a key element of infants’ immunity. Certain vaccines given to pregnant and lactating mothers provide immunity to infants through transmission across the placenta, umbilical cord (IgG), and human milk (IgA). Human milk produced by mothers with a history of COVID-19 infection contains SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulins are found in human milk after the COVID-19 vaccination, and to characterize the types of immunoglobulins present.

Results show that the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines induce SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA and IgG secretion in human milk. Further studies are needed to determine the duration of this immune response, its capacity to neutralize the COVID-19 virus, the transfer of passive immunity to breastfeeding infants, and the potential therapeutic use of human milk IgA to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19.

Release date: 20 August 2021
Source: University of Florida

Problems in thinking and attention linked to COVID19 infection - عوارض ذهنی کرونا

Evidence of cognitive deficits in people who have recovered from COVID-19 has been discovered in a new study of over 80,000 individuals.

The research found that those with more severe COVID-19 symptoms scored lower on an online series of tests, with performance on reasoning and problem-solving tasks being most affected. Further analysis of the data indicated that those who received mechanical ventilation to help them breathe whilst in hospital had the greatest impairment on cognitive tasks.

Out of the 81,337 who provided complete data, 12,689 people suspected they had COVID-19. Participants reported a range of severity of illness, with many experiencing respiratory symptoms whilst still being able to stay at home (3,559 participants). Nearly 200 were hospitalised (192 participants) and about a quarter of these (44 participants) required mechanical ventilation.

The time since illness onset was around 1-6 months, meaning the study could not draw any definitive conclusions about whether these effects on cognition were long-lasting.

Published in the journal EClinicalMedicine, the research was a collaboration between King’s College London, Imperial College London and Cambridge University.

Release date: 11 August 2021
Source: King’s College London

PCR of Gargle Lavage Samples as Effective as Nasopharyngeal Swabs to Identify SARSCoV2 Infection - تشخیص کرونا از راهی بسیار ساده تر

Twenty-six subjects from a cohort of 80 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 via nasopharyngeal swab, and all 26 tested positive using gargle lavage (mouthwash), according to new research published in Microbiology Spectrum, the new open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. That’s good news, because nasopharyngeal swabbing, currently the gold standard for collecting samples for COVID testing, has a low rate of acceptance due to the discomfort of having a nasal passage swabbed .The detection method for testing samples used in this study is the highly sensitive real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results show that in all cases, where people were positively tested by the gold standard nasal swabbing, one could also detect the virus in gargle lavage by the same RT-PCR method.

Release date: 21 July 2021
Source: American Society for Microbiology

Rethinking Remdesivir oral version - به سمت رمدسیویر خوراکی

Researchers modify current drug, creating oral version that can be taken earlier in COVID-19 diagnoses; in cell and animal studies, revised drug proved effective and safe.

Remdesivir is an antiviral drug originally discovered as part of a program to develop antiviral agents with activity against novel emerging viruses. In the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, it was tested as a potential therapeutic and found to measurably reduce recovery time for hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The Food and Drug Administration approved its use in October 2020 and it remains the only FDA-approved antiviral for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Currently, remdesivir must be administered intravenously, a process that restricts its use to patients hospitalized with relatively severe or advanced cases of COVID-19. The FDA has approved the use of remdesivir only for adults and children age 12 and older.

In a new paper of Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine describe cell and animal studies that demonstrate how lipid modifications of remdesivir nucleoside can improve drug delivery, effectiveness and toxicity compared to remdesivir.

Release date: 02 August 2021
Source: University of California – San Diego

No particular risk of infection of Sars Cov 2 from cash - پول نقد و کرونا

Fear of contagion is driving much more contactless payments during the pandemic. It wouldn’t be necessary.

How long do coronaviruses remain infectious on banknotes and coins? Is it possible to become infected through contact with cash? Experts at the European Central Bank, in collaboration with the Department of Medical and Molecular Virology at Ruhr-Universität Bochum, wanted to clarify this question. The researchers led by Professor Eike Steinmann and Dr. Daniel Todt developed a method specifically to test how many infectious virus particles can be transferred from cash to the skin in real-life conditions. Conclusion: under realistic conditions, the risk of contracting Sars-Cov-2 from cash is very low. The study has been published in the journal iScience.

Viruses on banknotes and coins
To find out how long Sars-Cov-2 persists on coins and banknotes, the researchers treated various euro coins and banknotes with virus solutions of different concentrations and over several days observed how long infectious virus was still detectable. A stainless-steel surface served as a control in each case. The results are reassuring: while infectious virus was still present on the stainless-steel surface after seven days, on the 10-euro banknote, it took only three days to completely disappear. For the 10-cent, 1-euro, and 5-cent coins after six days, two days and one hour, respectively, no infectious virus was detectable. “The rapid decline on the 5-cent piece is because it’s made of copper, on which viruses are known to be less stable,” explains Daniel Todt.

Release date: 29 July 2021
Source: Ruhr-University Bochum

Reducing COVID19 isolation times - کاهش زمان قرنطینه کرونایی

The highly infectious nature of the new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) has changed social habits throughout the world. Even with vaccinations on the rise, many countries hesitate to allow their residents to return to pre-pandemic activity. Moreover, they continue to demand that infected people isolate themselves for a minimum number of days after the onset of symptoms in a one-size-fits-all manner.

In a new study, a multi-national effort that included researchers at the Institute for Advanced Study of Biology (ASHBi), Kyoto University, Japan, uses a mathematical simulator of the SARS-COV-2 dynamics to demonstrate that the number of days can be reduced for many patients if PCR tests are used.

Patient isolation is one of the most effective if not most effective means of preventing the spread of SARS-COV-2. Beginning last year, people had to quickly adapt to weeks-long isolation after testing positive or showing symptoms, but these policies are exhausting societies. To maintain public cooperation, policymakers are seeking guidelines that shorten the isolation period while minimizing the risk of releasing infectious patients. eLife

Release date: 27 July 2021
Source: Kyoto University

Emergency department visits related to opioid overdoses up significantly during COVID19 pandemic - افزایش مصرف مواد مخدر در ایام کرونا

Emergency department visit rates because of an opioid overdose increased by 28.5% across the U.S. in 2020, compared to 2018 and 2019, recent Mayo Clinic research finds. Emergency visits overall decreased by 14% last year, while visits because of an opioid overdose increased by 10.5%. The result: Opioid overdoses were responsible for 0.32 out of 100 visits, or 1 in every 313 visits, which is up from 0.25, or 1 in every 400 visits, the previous two years.

This trend is supported by preliminary data recently released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which recorded more than 93,000 opioid overdose deaths in 2020. That’s a 29.4% increase from the year prior and the most opioid overdose deaths every recorded in the U.S.

The research was published in the Annals of Emergency Medicine and was presented in June at the AcademyHealth annual research meeting. The research also was presented at the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine’s conference, where it was selected for a plenary session.

Release date: 26 July 2021
Source: Mayo Clinic

Common COVID19 Antibiotic No More Effective Than Placebo - آزیترومایسین و کرونا

A UC San Francisco study has found that the antibiotic azithromycin was no more effective than a placebo in preventing symptoms of COVID-19 among non-hospitalized patients, and may increase their chance of hospitalization, despite widespread prescription of the antibiotic for the disease.

Azithromycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is widely prescribed as a treatment for COVID-19 in the United States and the rest of the world. “The hypothesis is that it has anti-inflammatory properties that may help prevent progression if treated early in the disease,” said Oldenburg. “We did not find this to be the case.”

The study included 263 participants who all tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within seven days before entering the study. None were hospitalized at the time of enrollment. In a random selection process, 171 participants received a single, 1.2 gram oral dose of azithromycin and 92 received an identical placebo.

At day 14 of the study, 50 percent of the participants remained symptom-free in both groups. By day 21, five of the participants who received azithromycin had been hospitalized with severe symptoms of COVID-19 and none of the placebo group had been hospitalized.

The researchers concluded that treatment with a single dose of azithromycin compared to placebo did not result in greater likelihood of being symptom-free.

The study, which was conducted in collaboration with Stanford University, appears in the JAMA.

Release date: 16 July 2021
Source: University of California – San Francisco