Public Health

Sugar not so nice for your child’s brain development - تاثیر مخرب مواد قندی بر رشد ذهنی کودکان

Children are the highest consumers of added sugar, even as high-sugar diets have been linked to health effects like obesity and heart disease and even impaired memory function.

However, less is known about how high sugar consumption during childhood affects the development of the brain, specifically a region known to be critically important for learning and memory called the hippocampus.

Release date: 31 March 2021

New research led by a University of Georgia faculty member in collaboration with a University of Southern California research group has shown in a rodent model that daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during adolescence impairs performance on a learning and memory task during adulthood. The group further showed that changes in the bacteria in the gut may be the key to the sugar-induced memory impairment.

 

Source: University of Georgia

Evidence supports Covid hearing loss link - کرونا علتی جدید برای ناشنوایی

Hearing loss and other auditory problems are strongly associated with Covid-19 according to a systematic review of research evidence led by University of Manchester and NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) scientists.

Professor Kevin Munro and PhD researcher Ibrahim Almufarrij found 56 studies that identified an association between COVID-19 and auditory and vestibular problems.

They pooled data from 24 of the studies to estimate that the prevalence of hearing loss was 7.6%, tinnitus was 14.8% and vertigo was 7.2%.

They publish their findings in the International Journal of Audiology.

Release date: 22 March 2021
Source: Taylor & Francis Group

Cardiorespiratory fitness improves grades at school - ورزش و پیشرفت تحصیلی

By confirming the link between children’s cardiorespiratory fitness and their school results, researchers at the UNIGE underline the importance of physical education classes at school.

Recent studies indicate a link between children’s cardiorespiratory fitness and their school performance: the more athletic they are, the better their marks in the main subjects – French and mathematics. Similarly, cardiorespiratory fitness is known to benefit cognitive abilities, such as memory and attention. But what is the real influence of such fitness on school results? To answer this question, researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland tested pupils from eight Geneva schools. Their results, published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, show that there is an indirect link with cardiorespiratory fitness influencing cognitive abilities, which in turn, influence school results.

Release date: 30 March 2021
Source: Université de Genève

Selenium supplementation protects against obesity and may extend lifespan - اثرات ضدچاقی سلنیوم

Supplementation of the nutrient selenium protects against diet-induced obesity and may extend the lifespan of mice by controlling energy-regulating hormones.

Adding the nutrient selenium to diets protects against obesity and provides metabolic benefits to mice, according to a study published in eLife .

The results could lead to interventions that reproduce many of the anti-aging effects associated with dietary restriction while also allowing people to eat as normal.

Several types of diet have been shown to increase healthspan – that is, the period of healthy lifespan. One of the proven methods of increasing healthspan in many organisms, including non-human mammals, is to restrict dietary intake of an amino acid called methionine.

Release date: 30 March 2021
Source: eLife

Insomnia disrupted sleep and burnout linked to higher odds of severe COVID19 - اهمیت خواب در زمان همه گیری کرونا

Each 1-hour increase in sleep associated with 12% lower odds of infection among clinicians

Insomnia, disrupted sleep, and daily burnout are linked to a heightened risk of not only becoming infected with coronavirus, but also having more severe disease and a longer recovery period, suggests an international study of healthcare workers, published in the online journal BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health.

Every 1-hour increase in the amount of time spent asleep at night was associated with 12% lower odds of becoming infected with COVID-19, the findings indicate.

Disrupted/insufficient sleep and work burnout have been linked to a heightened risk of viral and bacterial infections, but it’s not clear if these are also risk factors for COVID-19, say the researchers.

To explore this further, they drew on the responses to an online survey for healthcare workers repeatedly exposed to patients with COVID-19 infection, such as those working in emergency or intensive care, and so at heightened risk of becoming infected themselves.

Release date: 23 March 2021
Source: BMJ

Exercise boosts blood flow to the brain - از اثرات مثبت ورزش بر مغز

The results add to growing evidence that exercise programs may help older adults slow the onset of memory loss and dementia. It’s not just your legs and heart that get a workout when you walk briskly; exercise affects your brain as well. A new study by researchers at UT Southwestern shows that when older adults with mild memory loss followed an exercise program for a year, the blood flow to their brains increased. The results were published online today in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

Release date: 23 March 2021
Source: UT Southwestern Medical Center

Drinking a strong coffee half an hour before exercising increases fat burning - قهوه و ورزش

Scientists from the University of Granada also found that, if the exercise is performed in the afternoon, the effects of the caffeine are more marked than in the morning

Scientists from the Department of Physiology of the University of Granada (UGR) have shown that caffeine (about 3 mg/kg, the equivalent of a strong coffee) ingested half an hour before aerobic exercise significantly increases the rate of fat-burning. They also found that if the exercise is performed in the afternoon, the effects of the caffeine are more marked than in the morning.

In their study, published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, the researchers aimed to determine whether caffeine—one of the most commonly-consumed ergogenic substances in the world to improve sports performance—actually does increase oxidation or “burning” of fat during exercise. Despite the fact that its consumption in the form of supplements is very common, the scientific evidence for its beneficial claims is scarce.

Release date: 22 March 2021
Source: University of Granada

high vitamin D levels may protect against COVID-19 especially for Black people - نقش محافظتی ویتامین D در برابر کرونا

A new research study at the University of Chicago Medicine has found that when it comes to COVID-19, having vitamin D levels above those traditionally considered sufficient may lower the risk of infection, especially for Black people.

The study, published in JAMA Open Network on March 19, retrospectively examined the relationship between vitamin D levels and likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19. While levels of 30 ng/ml or more are usually considered sufficient, the authors found that Black individuals who had levels of 30 to 40 ng/ml had a 2.64 times higher risk of testing positive for COVID-19 than people with levels of 40 ng/ml or greater. Statistically significant associations of vitamin D levels with COVID-19 risk were not found in white people. The study looked at data from more than 3,000 patients at UChicago Medicine who had had their vitamin D levels tested within 14 days before a COVID-19 test.

Release date: 19 March 2021
Source: University of Chicago Medical Center

Covid-19 risk increases with airborne pollen - ریزگردها و خطر انتقال کرونا

When airborne pollen levels are higher, increased SARS-CoV-2 infection rates can be observed. These results were determined by a large-scale study conducted by an international team headed by researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Helmholtz Zentrum München. Members of high-risk groups could protect themselves by watching pollen forecasts and wearing dust filter masks.

In the spring of 2020, the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic appeared to coincide with the tree pollen season in the northern hemisphere. These observations prompted an international team of researchers to conduct an extensive investigation: The scientists wanted to know whether there is a demonstrable link between airborne pollen concentrations and SARS-CoV-2 infection rates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Release date: 08 March 2021
Source: Technical University of Munich (TUM)

Antihypertensive properties of green and black tea - خاصیت ضدفشارخونی چای

A new study from the University of California, Irvine shows that compounds in both green and black tea relax blood vessels by activating ion channel proteins in the blood vessel wall. The discovery helps explain the antihypertensive properties of tea and could lead to the design of new blood pressure-lowering medications.

Published in Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry.

Release date: 08 March 2021
Source: University of California – Irvine