Orthopedic Tests

Musculoskeletal System Examination



Waist & Hip




Cervical Spine

Lumbar Spine

– Spurling/neck compression test:

Spurling neck compression test

Purpose: Diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy
Description: A positive test is reproduction of radicular symptoms distant from the neck with passive lateral flexion and compression of the head.
Sensitivity: 40-60 %
Specificity: 92-100%

– Shoulder abduction (relief) sign:

Shoulder abduction (relief) sign

Purpose: Diagnosis and conservative management of patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy
Description: A positive test is relief or reduction of ipsilateral cervical radicular symptoms with active abduction of the ipsilateral arm with the hand on the head.
Sensitivity: 43-50 %
Specificity: 80-100 %

– Neck distraction test:
– Lhermitte sign:
– Hoffmann sign:

– Adson test
– Wright hyperabduction test
– Roos test
– Costoclavicular test

– Empty can/supraspinatus test
– Drop arm test

– Patte test
– Lift-off test

– Lateral scapular slide test
– Isometric pinch test
– Scapular assistance test
– Scapular retraction test

– Yergason test
– Speed test

– Neer’s sign test
– Hawkin test
– Yocum test

– Apprehension test
– Fowler’s sign
– Load and shift test

– Active compression test (O’Brien)
– Crank test
– Compression-rotation test

– Apley scarf test

– Resisted wrist extension
– Resisted wrist flexion and pronation

– Posterolateral rotatory instability
– Varus stress
– Jobe test (valgus stress)
– Moving valgus stress test

– Reagan test (lunotriquetral ballottement test)
– Watson test (scaphoid shift test)
– Shear test to assess the lunate triquetral ligament
– Ulnocarpal stress
– Finkelstein test
– Thumb basilar joint grind test

– Carpal compression test
– Phalen test (wrist flexion)
– Wrist extension test (reverse Phalen test)
– Tinel’s sign at the wrist