Mens loneliness linked to an increased risk of cancer - افزایش خطر سرطان در مردان تنها

A recent study by the University of Eastern Finland shows that loneliness among middle-aged men is associated with an increased risk of cancer. According to the researchers, taking account of loneliness and social relationships should thus be an important part of comprehensive health care and disease prevention. The findings were published in Psychiatry Research.

The study was launched in the 1980s with 2,570 middle-aged men from eastern Finland participating. Their health and mortality have been monitored on the basis of register data up until present days. During the follow-up, 649 men, i.e. 25% of the participants, developed cancer, and 283 men (11%) died of cancer. Loneliness increased the risk of cancer by about ten per cent. This association with the risk of cancer was observed regardless of age, socio-economic status, lifestyle, sleep quality, depression symptoms, body mass index, heart disease and their risk factors. In addition, cancer mortality was higher in cancer patients who were unmarried, widowed or divorced at baseline.

Release date: 16 April 2021
Source: University of Eastern Finland

Fasting lowers blood pressure by reshaping the gut microbiota - گرسنگی و فشارخون

Previous studies from our lab have shown that the composition of the gut microbiota in animal models of hypertension, such as the SHRSP (spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone) rat model, is different from that in animals with normal blood pressure.

The researchers also have shown that transplanting dysbiotic gut microbiota from a hypertensive animal into a normotensive one (one having a healthy blood pressure) results in the recipient developing high blood pressure.

This result told us that gut dysbiosis is not just a consequence of hypertension, but is actually involved in causing it.

Find all the details of this study in the journal Circulation Research.

Release date: 29 April 2021
Source: Baylor College of Medicine

Higher mushroom consumption is associated with a lower risk of cancer - اثرات ضد سرطانی قارچ های خوراکی

Next time you make a salad, you might want to consider adding mushrooms to it. That’s because higher mushroom consumption is associated with a lower risk of cancer, according to a new Penn State study, published in Advances in Nutrition.

The systematic review and meta-analysis examined 17 cancer studies published from 1966 to 2020. Analyzing data from more than 19,500 cancer patients, researchers explored the relationship between mushroom consumption and cancer risk.

Mushrooms are rich in vitamins, nutrients and antioxidants. The team’s findings show that these super foods may also help guard against cancer. Even though shiitake, oyster, maitake and king oyster mushrooms have higher amounts of the amino acid ergothioneine than white button, cremini and portabello mushrooms, the researchers found that people who incorporated any variety of mushrooms into their daily diets had a lower risk of cancer. According to the findings, individuals who ate 18 grams of mushrooms — about 1/8 to 1/4 cup — daily had a 45% lower risk of cancer compared to those who did not eat mushrooms.

Release date: 21 April 2021
Source: Penn State

Childhood air pollution exposure linked to poor mental health at age 18 - تاثیر مخرب آلودگی هوا بر ذهن کودکان

A multidecade study of young adults living in the United Kingdom has found higher rates of mental illness symptoms among those exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollutants, particularly nitrogen oxides, during childhood and adolescence.

Previous studies have identified a link between air pollution and the risk of specific mental disorders, including depression and anxiety, but this study looked at changes in mental health that span all forms of disorder and psychological distress associated with exposure to traffic-related air pollutants.

The findings, which will appear April 28 in JAMA Network Open, reveal that the greater an individual’s exposure to nitrogen oxides across childhood and adolescence, the more likely they are to show any signs of mental illness at the transition to adulthood, at age 18, when most symptoms of mental illness have emerged or begin to emerge.

Release date: 28 April 2021
Source: Duke University

Cloth face coverings can be as effective as surgical masks at protecting against COVID19 - تاثیر بالای ماسک های پارچه ای

At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, 139 countries mandated the use of face coverings in public space such as supermarkets and public transports. The World Health Organization also advises the use of face coverings and offers guidance on their effective features. Face coverings suppress the onward transmission of COVID-19 through exhalation and protect the wearer on inhalation.

In a paper published by the Physics of Fluids journal, the researchers detail how they looked at how liquid droplets are captured and filtered out in cloth masks by reviewing and modelling filtration processes, including inertial impaction.

Inertial impaction does not filter as a sieve or colander does – it works by forcing the air in your breath to twist and turn inside the mask so much that the droplets can’t follow the path of the air. Instead, the droplets crash into fibres inside the mask to prevent inhalation.

The team found that, under ideal conditions and dependent on the fit, three-layered cloth masks can perform similarly to surgical masks for filtering droplets – with both reducing exposure by around 50 to 75 per cent. For example, if an infected person and a healthy individual are both wearing masks, scientists believe this could result in up to 94 per cent less exposure.

Release date: 28 April 2021
Source: University of Surrey

Salad or cheeseburger Your coworkers shape your food choices - سالاد یا چیزبرگر تاثیر همکاران بر انتخاب غذایی یکدیگر

Employees’ cafeteria purchases—both healthy and unhealthy foods—were influenced by their co-workers’ food choices, found a large, two-year study of hospital employees. The study made innovative use of cash register data to gain insights into how individuals’ social networks shape their health behavior. The research suggests we might structure future efforts aimed at improving population health by capitalizing on how one person’s behavior influences another.

The foods people buy at a workplace cafeteria may not always be chosen to satisfy an individual craving or taste for a particular food. When co-workers are eating together, individuals are more likely to select foods that are as healthy—or unhealthy—as the food selections on their fellow employees’ trays. “We found that individuals tend to mirror the food choices of others in their social circles, which may explain one way obesity spreads through social networks,” says Douglas Levy, PhD, an investigator at the Mongan Institute Health Policy Research Center at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and first author of new research published in Nature Human Behaviour.

Release date: 22 April 2021
Source: Massachusetts General Hospital

Among COVID19 survivors an increased risk of death serious illness - خطرات درازمدت کرونا

A new study from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis shows that even mild cases of COVID-19 increase the risk of death in the six months following diagnosis and that this risk increases with disease severity. The comprehensive study also catalogues the wide-ranging and long-term health problems often triggered by the infection, even among those not hospitalized.

As the COVID-19 pandemic has progressed, it has become clear that many survivors — even those who had mild cases — continue to manage a variety of health problems long after the initial infection should have resolved. In what is believed to be the largest comprehensive study of long COVID-19 to date, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis showed that COVID-19 survivors — including those not sick enough to be hospitalized — have an increased risk of death in the six months following diagnosis with the virus.

The researchers also have catalogued the numerous diseases associated with COVID-19, providing a big-picture overview of the long-term complications of COVID-19 and revealing the massive burden this disease is likely to place on the world’s population in the coming years.

The study, involving more than 87,000 COVID-19 patients and nearly 5 million control patients in a federal database, appears in the journal Nature .

Release date: 22 April 2021
Source: Washington University School of Medicine

Disrupted sleep is linked to increased risk of death particularly in women - بدخوابی و مرگ زودرس

For the first time, a study has shown a clear link between the frequency and duration of unconscious wakefulness during night-time sleep and an increased risk of dying from diseases of the heart and blood vessels, and death from any cause, particularly in women.

The study of 8001 men and women, which is published in the European Heart Journal, found that women who experienced unconscious wakefulness most often and for longer periods of time had nearly double the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease during an average of between 6 and 11 years’ follow-up, when compared to the risk in general female population. The association was less clear in men, and their risk of cardiovascular death increased by just over a quarter compared to the general male population.

Unconscious wakefulness, also known as cortical arousal, is a normal part of sleep. It occurs spontaneously and is part of the body’s ability to respond to potentially dangerous situations, such as noise or breathing becoming obstructed. Pain, limb movements, trauma, temperature and light can also be triggers.

Release date: 20 April 2021
Source: European Society of Cardiology

Air pollution may affect severity and hospitalization in COVID19 patients - تاثیر منفی آلودگی هوا بر شدت ابتلا به کرونا

Patients who have preexisting respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and live in areas with high levels of air pollution have a greater chance of hospitalization if they contract COVID-19, says a University of Cincinnati researcher.

Particulate matter is very small, small enough to be inhaled deep into the lungs, they cross into the blood and also affect other organ systems. Air pollution as a result of emissions from automobiles, factories or other sources is a generator of particulate matter.

The study’s findings were published online in the scholarly journal Respiratory Medicine .

Release date: 13 April 2021
Source: University of Cincinnati

Differing immune reponses discovered in asymptomatic cases versus those with severe COVID19 - پاسخ متفاوت سیستم ایمنی به کرونا

Using data from the Human Cell Atlas, researchers have identified the differences in immune cells’ response in those who had no symptoms compared to severe symptoms.

The largest study of its type in the UK has identified differences in the immune response to COVID-19, between people with no symptoms, compared to those suffering a more serious reaction to the virus.

Researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute, Newcastle University, University College London, University of Cambridge, EMBL’s European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) and their collaborators within the Human Cell Atlas initiative, found raised levels of specific immune cells in asymptomatic people. They also showed people with more serious symptoms had lost these protective cell types, but gained inflammatory cells. These differences in the immune response could help explain serious lung inflammation and blood clotting symptoms, and could be used to identify potential targets for developing therapies.

The research, published in Nature Medicine, is one of the only studies to include people who were asymptomatic. This large-scale collaborative study is part of the Human Cell Atlas* initiative to map every cell type in the human body, to transform our understanding of health, infection and disease.

Release date: 20 April 2021
Source: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute