Self-reports of smell and taste changes provide earlier markers of the spread of infection of COVID-19 than current governmental indicators, according to an international team of researchers. The researchers also observed a decline in self-reports of smell and taste changes as early as five days after lockdown enforcement, with faster declines reported in countries that adopted the most stringent lockdown measures.

Release date: 11 November 2020
Source: Penn State

Link between Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota is confirmed - ارتباط بین باکتری های روده ای و بیماری آلزایمر تایید شد.

The gut microbiota could play a role in brain diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Some gut bacteria release lipopolysaccharides and short chain fatty acids that can reach the brain via the blood and might cause amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration.

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Still incurable, it directly affects nearly one million people in Europe, and indirectly millions of family members as well as society as a whole. In recent years, the scientific community has suspected that the gut microbiota plays a role in the development of the disease. A team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) and the University Hospitals of Geneva (HUG) in Switzerland, together with Italian colleagues from the National Research and Care Center for Alzheimer’s and Psychiatric Diseases Fatebenefratelli in Brescia, University of Naples and the IRCCS SDN Research Center in Naples, confirm the correlation, in humans, between an imbalance in the gut microbiota and the development of amyloid plaques in the brain, which are at the origin of the neurodegenerative disorders characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Proteins produced by certain intestinal bacteria, identified in the blood of patients, could indeed modify the interaction between the immune and the nervous systems and trigger the disease. These results, to be discovered in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, make it possible to envisage new preventive strategies based on the modulation of the microbiota of people at risk.

Release date: 13 November 2020
Source: Université de Genève

Fluvoxamine may prevent serious illness in COVID-19 patients - فلووکسامین می تواند از بیماری شدید در بیماران کرونا پیشگیری کند

In a preliminary study of COVID-19 patients with mild-to-moderate disease who were attempting to recover in their homes, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have found that the drug fluvoxamine seems to prevent some of the most serious complications of the illness and make hospitalization and the need for supplemental oxygen less likely.

The study, a collaboration between the university’s Department of Psychiatry and Division of Infectious Diseases, involved 152 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Researchers compared the outcomes of those treated with fluvoxamine to the outcomes of those given an inactive placebo. After 15 days, none of the 80 patients who had received the drug experienced serious clinical deterioration. Meanwhile, six of the 72 patients given placebo (8.3%) became seriously ill, with four requiring hospitalization.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2773108

Release date: 12 November 2020
Source: Washington University School of Medicine

With or without allergies outcomes similar for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 - آلرژی قبلی برای بیماران بستری مبتلا به کووید19 فاکتور خطر مهمی محسوب نمی شود

During the COVID-19 pandemic, attention has been focused on how those with both allergies and asthma might be affected should they become ill. A new study being presented at this year’s virtual American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) Annual Scientific Meeting examines hospital data to determine if those with allergic conditions had more severe COVID-related disease than those without.

“In looking at the outcomes for patients based on allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, asthma, eczema, and food allergy, we didn’t find significant differences in the numbers of interventions needed for those with allergies versus those without when it came to COVID-19,” says allergist Mitchell Grayson, MD, ACAAI member and co-author of the study. “For example, with regard to ICU admission, 43% of those with allergic disease were admitted versus 45% without. And 79% of those with allergy needed supplemental oxygen versus 74% of those without.”

In the study, more patients with allergies had COPD (39% vs. 17%), which is a known risk factor for severe disease with COVID. After statistically controlling for the presence of COPD and its association with more severe COVID-related illness, the researchers found a statistical trend suggesting possible protection in those with pre-existing allergic disease but not asthma.

Release date: 13 November 2020
Source: American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

Sleep Apnea May Be Risk Factor for COVID-19 - آپنه خواب می تواند یک عامل خطر برای ابتلا به کووید19 باشد

The study focused on the register information of COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Turku University Hospital during the first wave of the pandemic in the spring 2020. Southwest Finland, with a population of 480,000, managed the first wave of the pandemic with a relatively small number of infected people. Patients with a positive test result amounted to 278 individuals. From the infected patients, 28 were admitted to hospital care at Turku University Hospital by 3 May 2020. The register information of these patients was studied with the aim to unravel the risks for the severe form of COVID-19 and the need for intensive care.

The comparison of the register information revealed that 29 percent of the patients admitted to hospital care had already been diagnosed with sleep apnea. The number is significant, as only 3.1 percent of the population of Southwest Finland is getting treatment for sleep apnea. Even though the total number of patients in the study was low, the share of sleep apnea patients was high. The extent of sleep apnea among the patients cannot only be explained by the obesity often met in sleep apnea patients, being one of the already known risk factors for severe COVID-19.

The research article has been published in Sleep Medicine and Disorders International Journal (SMDIJ).

Release date: 13 November 2020
Source: University of Turku

Face masks do not hinder breathing during exercise - استفاده از ماسک در هنگام ورزش باعث اختلال در تنفس نمی شود

Exercise performance and blood and muscle oxygen levels are not affected for healthy individuals wearing a face mask during strenuous workouts.

Findings are of importance because they indicate that people can wear face masks during intense exercise with no detrimental effects on performance and minimal impact on blood and muscle oxygenation

Published Nov. 3 in the research journal International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

Release date: 5 November 2020
Source: University of Saskatchewan

COVID-19 is making tinnitus worse - کووید-19تشدید وزوز گوش

New research reveals that tinnitus, a common condition that causes the perception of noise in the ear and head, is being exacerbated by COVID-19 – as well as the measures helping to keep us safe.

The study of 3,103 people with tinnitus was led by Anglia Ruskin University (ARU), with support from the British Tinnitus Association and the American Tinnitus Association. The study involved participants from 48 countries, with the vast majority coming from the UK and the US.

Published in the journal Frontiers in Public Health, the research found that 40% of those displaying symptoms of COVID-19 simultaneously experience a worsening of their tinnitus.

Release date: 5 November 2020
Source: Anglia Ruskin University

People who eat chili pepper may live longer - مصرف فلفل تند احتمالا باعث افزایش عمر می شود

Consumption of chili pepper may reduce the relative risk of cardiovascular disease mortality by 26%, according to an analysis of diet and mortality data from four large, international studies.
Chili pepper consumption was associated with a 25% reduction in death from any cause and 23% fewer cancer deaths, compared to people who never or only rarely consumed chili pepper.

Release date: 9 November 2020
Source: American Heart Association

Melatonin as Possible COVID-19 Treatment - ملاتونین درمان احتمالی جدید کورونا

Results from a new Cleveland Clinic-led study suggest that melatonin, a hormone that regulates the sleep-wake cycle and is commonly used as an over-the-counter sleep aid, may be a viable treatment option for COVID-19.

As COVID-19 continues to spread throughout the world, particularly with cases rising during what some have termed the “fall surge,” repurposing drugs already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for new therapeutic purposes continues to be the most efficient and cost-effective approach to treat or prevent the disease.

According to the findings published today in PLOS Biology, a novel artificial intelligence platform developed by Lerner Research Institute researchers to identify possible drugs for COVID-19 repurposing has revealed melatonin as a promising candidate.

Release date: 11 November 2020
Source: Cleveland Clinic

Life after COVID-19 hospitalization - زندگی بعد از بیمارستان مبتلایان کرونا

Surviving a case of COVID-19 that’s bad enough to land you in the hospital is hard enough. But life after the hospital stay – and especially after an intensive care stay – is no bed of roses, either, according to a new study.

More than 39% of the patients interviewed said they hadn’t gotten back to normal activities yet, two months after leaving the hospital. Twelve percent of the patients said they couldn’t carry out basic care for themselves anymore, or as well as before.

Nearly 23% said they became short of breath just climbing a flight of stairs. One-third had ongoing COVID-like symptoms, including many who still had problems with taste or smell.

Of those who had jobs before their bout with COVID-19, 40% said they couldn’t return to work, most because of their health and some because they’d lost their job. And 26% of those who had gone back to work said they had to work fewer hours or have reduced duties because of their health.

Nearly half of those interviewed said they’d been emotionally affected by their experience with COVID-19 – including a minority who said they’d sought mental health care.

More than a third – 37% — of those interviewed said their experience with COVID-19 had left them with at least a minor financial impact. Nearly 10% said they’d used up most or all of their savings, and 7% said they were rationing food, heat, housing or medications because of cost.

 

Release date: 11 November 2020
Source: Michigan Medicine – University of Michigan