Drinking smoking and drug use linked to premature heart disease in the young - سه عامل بیماری قلبی در جوانان

Recreational drinking, smoking, and drug use is linked to premature heart disease in young people, particularly younger women, finds research published online in the journal Heart.

Those who regularly use 4 or more substances are 9 times as likely to be affected, the findings indicate.

The numbers of new cases of heart disease (atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease) have been increasing in young adults, but the potential role of recreational substance use isn’t entirely clear.

To probe this further, the researchers explored whether the recreational use of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, and illicit drugs, such as amphetamine and cocaine, might be linked to prematurely and extremely prematurely furred up arteries.

They drew on information supplied to the 2014–2015 nationwide Veterans Affairs Healthcare database and the Veterans with premaTure AtheroscLerosis (VITAL) registry.

Extremely premature heart disease was defined as an ‘event’, such as a heart attack, angina, or stroke before the age of 40, while premature heart disease was defined as an event before the age of 55 in men and before the age of 65 in women.

In all, there were 135,703 people with premature heart disease and 7716 with extremely premature heart disease. They were compared with 1,112, 45 patients who didn’t have premature heart disease.

Recreational use of any substance was independently associated with a higher likelihood of premature and extremely premature heart disease.

Patients with premature heart disease were more likely to smoke (63% vs 41%), drink (32% vs 15%), and to use cocaine (13% vs 2.5%), amphetamines (3% vs 0.5%), and cannabis (12.5% vs 3%).

After accounting for potentially influential factors, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol, those who smoked tobacco were nearly twice as likely to have premature heart disease while those who drank recreationally were 50% more likely to do so.

Release date: 15 February 2021
Source: BMJ

Most people are naturally armed against SARS-CoV-2 - کرونا و ایمنی

The majority of the population can produce neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), according to a study published February 11 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Michael Mor of Tel Aviv University, and colleagues. Moreover, the results support the use of combination antibody therapy to prevent and treat COVID-19.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has had a profound impact on global public health. Neutralizing antibodies that specifically target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein are thought to be essential for controlling the virus. RBD-specific neutralizing antibodies have been detected in convalescent patients – those who have recovered from COVID-19. Some of the recoverees tend to have robust and long-lasting immunity, while others display a waning of their neutralizing antibodies. The factors associated with an effective, durable antibody response are still unclear.

Release date: 11 February 2021
Source: Eurokalert

new link between personality and risk of death - ارتباط شخصیت و طول عمر

Ground-breaking research led by University of Limerick has revealed for the first time that the immune system directly links personality to long-term risk of death. The study sheds new light on why people who are more conscientious tend to live longer.

Results from the new international study published in the journal Brain, Behavior, and Immunity have found that the immune system plays a previously unknown role in the link between personality traits and long-term risk of death.

Our personality is critically important throughout our lives, from early stages in our development, to the accumulation of the impact of how we think, feel, and behave across our lives, and in the years preceding our death. It is also becoming increasingly apparent how important personality actually is for our long-term health and resulting longevity. For instance, it has been shown that people scoring lower on the personality trait of conscientiousness (a tendency to be responsible, organized, and capable of self-control) can be at a 40% increased risk of future death compared to their higher scoring counterparts. What is not clear is how this could happen, and importantly, what biological pathway might be responsible for this link.

The researchers wanted to investigate if two biological markers which are central to the immune system may explain why personality traits are associated with long-term mortality risk. Specifically, they wanted to test if interleukin-6 and c-reactive protein which are known to play an important role in age-related morbidity may explain how our personality traits are related to how long we live. The study was drawing on data from the Midlife in the United States Longitudinal Study carried out on 957 adults who were examined over a 14-year period.

Release date: 17 February 2021
Source: University of Limerick

Researchers propose that humidity from masks may lessen severity of COVID-19 - بازهم در اهمیت ماسک

Masks help protect the people wearing them from getting or spreading SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, but now researchers from the National Institutes of Health have added evidence for yet another potential benefit for wearers: The humidity created inside the mask may help combat respiratory diseases such as COVID-19.

The study, led by researchers in the NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), found that face masks substantially increase the humidity in the air that the mask-wearer breathes in. This higher level of humidity in inhaled air, the researchers suggest, could help explain why wearing masks has been linked to lower disease severity in people infected with SARS-CoV-2, because hydration of the respiratory tract is known to benefit the immune system. The study published in the Biophysical Journal.

Release date: 12 February 2021
Source: NIH/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Déjà brew Another shot for lovers of coffee - از خطرات مصرف زیاد قهوه

Long black, espresso, or latte, whatever your coffee preference, drink too much and you could be in hot water, especially when it comes to heart health. Heavy coffee consumption – six or more cups a day – can increase the amount of lipids (fats) in your blood to significantly heighten your risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

There’s certainly a lot of scientific debate about the pros and cons of coffee, but while it may seem like we’re going over old ground, it’s essential to fully understand how one of the world’s most widely consumed drinks can impact our health

Release date: 18 February 2021
Source: University of South Australia

Adherence to health precautions not climate the biggest factor driving wintertime COVID-19 outbreaks - تاثیر فصل در شیوع کرونا

The researchers — working in summer 2020 — ran simulations of a wintertime coronavirus outbreak in New York City to identify key factors that would allow the virus to proliferate. They found that relaxing control measures in the summer months led to an outbreak in the winter regardless of climate factors. “Our results implied that lax control measures — and likely fatigue with complying with control measures — would fuel wintertime outbreaks. Although we have witnessed a substantial number of COVID-19 cases, population-level immunity remains low in many locations.”

The researchers found that even maintaining rigid control measures through the summer can lead to a wintertime outbreak if climate factors provided enough of a boost to viral transmission. If summertime controls are holding the transmissibility of coronavirus at a level that only just mitigates an outbreak, then winter climate conditions can push you over the edge. Nonetheless, having effective control measures in place last summer could have limited the winter outbreaks we’re now experiencing.

Release date: 09 February 2021
Source: Princeton University

Male sex, BMI, smoking and depression all increase biological age - چهار عامل موثر در سن بیولوژیک

A ‘biological age’ score predicts that being male, overweight, a smoker and having depression all contribute to biological aging, a study published today in eLife reports.

Aging can be measured in different ways. While chronological age is measured by date of birth, scientists have developed a range of measurements to determine our biological age. These include measuring the length of telomeres (little caps on the end of our chromosomes that shorten as we grow older), chemical changes to our DNA (epigenetics), and changes to the proteins and metabolites in our bodies (proteomic and metabolomic measures).

Although studies have linked these individual measurements to physical and mental health, it is not known whether they influence each other – or whether they have a cumulative effect on our overall wellbeing as we age. This new research is the first to combine these individual measurements of biological age and show how they link with mental and physical health.

The team used blood samples from nearly 3,000 people taking part in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. They applied computer modelling to create individual biological aging indicators based on five commonly used measurements: telomere length, epigenetics, gene levels, metabolites and proteomics. The five indicators were then linked back to different factors such as sex, lifestyle factors, and known physical and mental disorders such as depression.

Of the five biological aging indicators, only three were found to significantly interact in individuals, such that an increase in one indicator also paralleled an increase in the other. There were many overlapping and distinct links between particular aging indicators and specific lifestyle factors or diseases. But being male, having a high body mass index (BMI), smoking and having metabolic syndrome were most consistently linked with more advanced biological aging.

This study has been published as part of eLife’s special issue on aging, geroscience and longevity.

Release date: 09 February 2021
Source: eLife

Study finds childhood diet has lifelong impact - بازهم اهمیت تغذیه در دوران کودکی

Contain too much fat and sugar in childhood diet  can alter your microbiome for life, even if you later learn to eat healthier, a new study in mice suggests.

The study by UC Riverside researchers is one of the first to show a significant decrease in the total number and diversity of gut bacteria in mature mice fed an unhealthy diet as juveniles.

“We studied mice, but the effect we observed is equivalent to kids and childhood having a Western diet, high in fat and sugar and their gut microbiome still being affected up to six years after puberty,” explained UCR evolutionary physiologist Theodore Garland.

A paper describing the study has recently been published in The Journal of Experimental Biology.

The microbiome refers to all the bacteria as well as fungi, parasites, and viruses that live on and inside a human or animal. Most of these microorganisms are found in the intestines, and most of them are helpful, stimulating the immune system, breaking down food and helping synthesize key vitamins.

In a healthy body, there is a balance of pathogenic and beneficial organisms. However, if the balance is disturbed, either through the use of antibiotics, illness, or unhealthy diet, the body could become susceptible to disease.

Analysis also showed that the gut bacteria are sensitive to the amount of exercise the mice got. Muribaculum bacteria increased in mice fed a standard diet who had access to a running wheel and decreased in mice on a high-fat diet whether they had exercise or not.

Release date: 03 February 2021
Source: University of California – Riverside

School Closures May Not Reduce Coronavirus Deaths as Much as Expected - تعطیلی مدارس به وقت کرونا

School closures, the loss of public spaces, and having to work remotely due to the coronavirus pandemic have caused major disruptions in people’s social lives all over the world.

Researchers suggest a reduction in fatal coronavirus cases can be achieved without the need for so much social disruption. They discuss the impacts of the school closures of various types of facilities in the journal Chaos, from AIP Publishing. After running thousands of simulations of the coronavirus pandemic response in New York City with variations in social distancing behavior at home, in schools, at public facilities, and in the workplace while considering differences in interactions between different age groups, the results were stunning. The researchers found school closures are not largely beneficial in preventing serious cases of COVID-19. Less surprisingly, social distancing in public places, particularly among elderly populations, is the most important.

“School only represents a small proportion of social contact. … It is more likely that people get exposure to viruses in public facilities, like restaurants and shopping malls,” said Qingpeng Zhang, one of the authors. “Since we focus here on the severe infections and deceased cases, closing schools contributes little if the elderly citizens are not protected in public facilities and other places.”

Release date: 09 February 2021
Source: American Institute of Physics

Coffee lovers rejoice Drinking more coffee associated with decreased heart failure risk - خبری خوب برای دوستداران قهوه

Analysis of three large, well-known heart disease studies found drinking one or more cups of caffeinated coffee was associated with decreased heart failure risk. Drinking decaffeinated coffee did not have the same benefit and may be associated with an increased risk for heart failure. There is not yet enough clear evidence to recommend increasing coffee consumption to decrease risk of heart disease with the same strength and certainty as stopping smoking, losing weight or exercising.

Dietary information from three large, well-known heart disease studies suggests drinking one or more cups of caffeinated coffee may reduce heart failure risk, according to research published in Circulation: Heart Failure, an American Heart Association journal.

 

Release date: 09 February 2021
Source: American Heart Association